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nicephorus the first

The Holy Martyr Nicephorus lived in the city of Syrian Antioch. In July, 811, the emperor was killed in a battle with the Bulgarians. Nicephorus received permission to return from exile if he would promise to remain silent. The first full English translation, with an introduction, of Al-Qasida al-Arminiyya al-MalÊ¿una (The Armenian Cursed Ode)— written on behalf of Nicephorus Phocas (regn. Nicephorus I A. D. 802-811 Matthew Marsh Sul Ross State University. http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/11050a.htm. But the patriarch would not recognize the synod and paid no attention to the summons. Before the matter was settled Theodore had written to the patriarch entreating him not to reinstate the guilty priest, but had received no answer. Saint Nicephorus was a dignitary at the court of the empress Irene (797-802), and then after receiving monastic tonsure, he became known for his piety. How unique is the name Nicephorus? His house was surrounded by crowds of angry Iconoclasts who shouted threats and invectives. The patriarch endeavoured to establish monastic discipline among the monks, and to suppress double monasteries which had been forbidden by the Seventh Ecumenical Council. This page was last edited on 21 November 2020, at 11:53. The emperor then summoned Nicephorus to him, and the patriarch went to the imperial palace accompanied by the abbots and monks. They all repudiated the interference of the emperor in dogmatic questions and once more rejected Leo's proposal to hold a conference. The dogmatic treatises, chiefly on this subject, that he wrote are as follows: a lesser "Apology for the Catholic Church concerning the newly arisen Schism in regard to Sacred Images" (Migne, P.G., C, 833-849), written 813-14; a larger treatise in two parts; the first part is an "Apology for the pure, unadulterated Faith of Christians against those who accuse us of idolatry" (Migne, loc. He died at the monastery of Saint Theodore (Hagiou Theodorou), revered as a confessor. The emperor received those who had accompanied Nicephorus, among them seven metropolitans and Abbot Theodore of Studium. Emperor Michael was an honourable man of good intentions, but weak and dependent. Nicephorus served in the imperial palace as a secretary. After the death of the Patriarch Tarasios of Constantinople, although still a layman, he was chosen patriarch by the wish of the emperor (Easter, April 12, 806). This champion of the orthodox view in the second contest over the veneration of images belonged to a noted family of Constantinople. introduced three hundred thousand Saracens into the Asiatic provinces that were subject to … ... Be the first one to write a review. http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/11050a.htm. He then withdrew to one of the cloisters that he had founded on the eastern shore of the Bosporus, until he was appointed director of the largest home for the destitute in Constantinople c. 802. With the assent of the patriarch he resigned and entered a monastery with his children. Nicephori Archiepiscopi Constantinopolitani Opuscula historica. He would not agree, however, and remained in the monastery of St. Theodore, where he continued by speech and writing to defend the veneration of images. In 874 his bones were translated to Constantinople with much pomp by the Patriarch Methodius and interred, 13 March, in the Church of the Apostles. Pope Leo sent an encouraging and consolatory reply to the resolute confessors, upon which they wrote another letter to him through Epiphanius. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1911. When Nicephorus demanded the confession of faith, before the coronation, Leo put it off. After crowning MICHAEL I, he inspired massacres of "heretic" Paulicians. Theodore declared that silence under these conditions would be treason and expressed sympathy with the patriarch whom the emperor forbade to hold public service in the church. As soon as the new emperor had assured the peace of the empire by the overthrow of the Bulgarians his true opinions began gradually to appear. The oldest recorded birth by the Social Security Administration for the name Nicephorus is Sunday, March 13th, 1892. Attaleiates reported that Botaniates was able to keep command over his mounted troops as he extricated them from being overrun by the Pecheneg horde. From there he carried on a literary polemic for the cause of the iconodules against the synod of 815. His action was regarded by the strict church party as a violation of ecclesiastical law and a scandal. 963-969 )—and sent to Abbasid caliph al-MuteeÊ¿ (regn. Nicephorus was a very educated person and became minister of finance (Logothetis) during the reign of Irene the Athenian. In December, 814, Nicephorus had a long conference with the emperor on the veneration of images but no agreement was reached. Nicephorus added to this second part seventy-five extracts from the writings of the Fathers [edited by Pitra, "Spicilegium Solesmense", I (Paris, 1852), 227-370]; in two further writings, which also apparently belong together, passages from earlier writers, that had been used by the enemies of images to maintain their opinions, are examined and explained. The exiled Nicephorus persevered in his opposition and wrote several treatises against iconoclasm. On the occasion of the change of emperors, in 820, he was put forward as a candidate for the patriarchate and at least obtained the promise of toleration. A final and, as it appears, especially important treatise on this question has not yet been published. Thus, Nicephorus grew up with his father's example of defending the veneration of the images before his eyes. Accordingly Emperor Leo's hostile measures were not repealed, although the persecution ceased. He asserted his love and his attachment to the patriarch, and said he would withdraw all opposition if the patriarch would acknowledge the violation of law by removing the priest Joseph. Nicephorus became known for his intellect and his eloquence, and received the post of imperial commissioner. Both these treatises were edited by Pitra; the first Epikrisis in "Spicilegium Solesmense", I, 302-335; the second Antirresis in the same, I, 371-503, and IV, 292-380. Emperor Nicephorus continued to persecute all adherents of Theodore of Studium, and, in addition, oppressed those of whom he had grown suspicious, whether clergy or dignitaries of the empire. The book was first published in 1958; Nicephorus, patriarch of Constantinople (806-815)died in 829 and is now a Saint, of course. Remy Lafort, S.T.D., Censor. His house was surrounded by crowds of angry Iconoclasts who shouted threats and invectives. Later the patriarch sent several learned bishops and abbots to convince him of the truth of the position of the Patriarch on the veneration of images. His studies taught him experimental methods in science and he graduated to become a professor at the college. Nicephorus I can be considered one of the Byzantine Empire's more controversial emperors, … ABBYY GZ download. The two treatises discuss passages from Macarius Magnes, Eusebius of Caesarea, and from a writing wrongly ascribed to Epiphanius of Cyprus. He entered into connection with the opponents of images, among whom were a number of bishops; it steadily grew more evident that he was preparing a new attack upon the veneration of images. In it he sought to excuse the long delay by the tyranny of the preceding emperor, interwove a rambling confession of faith and promised to notify Rome at the proper time in regard to all important questions. NICEPHORUS I, PATRIARCH OF CONSTANTINOPLE, ST. Patriarchate April 12, 806 to March 13, 815; Byzantine theologian and historian; b. Constantinople, c. 758; d. in exile near Chalcedon, June 2, 828. Michael succeeded in reconciling the patriarch and Theodore of Studium. Bishop Anthony's acquiescence was merely feigned. The popular general, Leo the Armenian, now became emperor, 11 July, 813. "St. opuscula historica" in the "Bibliotheca Teubneriana" (Leipzig, 1880). My email address is webmaster at newadvent.org. Finally, with the assent of the bishops Emperor Nicephorus (802-11) appointed Nicephorus as patriarch. Upon the death of Patriarch Tarasius (25 February, 806), there was great division among the clergy and higher court officials as to the choice of his successor. Boon. Shortly after this Nicephorus sought solitude on the Thracian Bosporus, where he had founded a monastery. The patriarch endeavoured to establish monastic discipline among the monks, and to suppress double monasteries which had been forbidden by the Seventh Ecumenical Council. For the first four centuries the author is largely dependent on his predecessors, Eusebius, Socrates … The emperor had also recourse to the papacy in reference to these quarrels and had received a letter of approval from Leo. He was well educated. Imprimatur. The exiled Nicephorus persevered in his opposition and wrote several treatises against iconoclasm. If you want to read (in French) the quality of his insults against … In this city lived also the presbyter Sapricius, with whom Nicephorus was very friendly, so that they were considered as brothers. Boon. The emperor then summoned Nicephorus to him, and the patriarch went to the imperial palace accompanied by the abbots and monks. 0668 First Siege of Constantinople: This attack lasts off and on for seven years, with the Muslim forces generally spending the winters on the island of Cyzicus, a few miles south of Constantinople, and only sailing against the city during the spring and summer months.The Greeks are able to fend off repeated attacks with a weapon desperately feared by the Arabs: Greek Fire. Kirsch, J.P. (1911). Nicephorus first had a long, private conversation with the emperor, in which he vainly endeavoured to dissuade Leo from his opposition to the veneration of images. The direct elevation of a Iayman to the patriarchate, as had already happened in the case of Tarasius, aroused opposition in the ecclesiastical party among the clergy and monks. Both these treatises were edited by Pitra; the first Epikrisis in "Spicilegium Solesmense", I, 302-335; the second Antirresis in the same, I, 371-503, and IV, 292-380. Nicephorus stood in the forefront of the battle against iconoclasm. Kirsch, Johann Peter. If you want to read (in French) the quality of his insults against … 11. Mango's treatment of Nicephorus's sources is sober and conservative, particularly in refuting the idea that one of those sources was the "Great Chronographer" (pp. However, Michael would not consent to an actual restoration of images such as Nicephorus demanded from him, for he declared that he did not wish to interfere in religious matters and would leave everything as he had found it. New York: Robert Appleton Company. In his first chapter Nicephorus speaks of the utility of ecclesiastical history, and gives a list of his predecessors in that line -from Eusebius to Procopius and Agathias, with a notice concerning each of them in which indeed he accuses Eusebius of heresy and Socrates of impurity. His feast is celebrated on this day both in the Greek and Roman Churches; the Greeks also observe 2 June as the day of his death. Emperor Michael was an honourable man of good intentions, but weak and dependent. After vain theological disputes, in December 814, there followed personal insults. His father, Theodore, was secretary to the emperor Constantine VCopronymus, a iconoclast. Next to each book is the count of its lines, his stichometry, to which we can compare our accepted texts and judge how much has been added or omitted. This article was transcribed for New Advent by Donald J. Moreover, he favoured the heretical Paulicians and the Iconoclasts and drained the people by oppressive taxes, so that he was universally hated. He was the son of the imperial secretary Theodore and his pious wife Eudoxia. After his complete defeat, 22 June, 813, in the war against the Bulgarians, the emperor lost all authority. February 1, 1911. On the other side Theodore, Plato, and the majority of their adherents recognized the patriarch as the lawful head of the Byzantine Church, and sought to bring the refractory back to his obedience. The principal works of Nikephorus are three writings referring to iconoclasm: Nikephoros follows in the path of John of Damascus. Leo had received no communication from Patriarch Nicephorus and was, therefore, not thoroughly informed in the matter; he also desired to spare the eastern emperor as much as possible. Emperor from 802. He was born in 758 in Constantinople to a nobleman who served as secretary to the Byzantine emperor. The editor of New Advent is Kevin Knight. The SSDI is a searchable database of more than 70 million names. "St. Nikephoros at first replied to his removal from his office by excommunication, but was at last obliged to yield to force, and was taken to one of the cloisters he had founded, Tou Agathou, and later to that called Tou Hagiou Theodorou. Nicephorus also left two small historical works; one known as the Breviarium", the other the "Chronographis", both are edited by C. de Boor, "Nicephori archiep. Ecclesiastical approbation. Nicephorus added to this second part seventy-five extracts from the writings of the Fathers [edited by Pitra, "Spicilegium Solesmense", I (Paris, 1852), 227-370]; in two further writings, which also apparently belong together, passages from earlier writers, that had been used by the enemies of images to maintain their opinions, are examined and explained. With fearless energy the Patriarch Nicephorus now proceeded against the machinations of the Iconoclasts. 510 Views . Solesm., IV, 233-91). Please help support the mission of New Advent and get the full contents of this website as an instant download. Theodore declared that silence under these conditions would be treason and expressed sympathy with the patriarch whom the emperor forbade to hold public service in the church. To it he appended a canon catalog (which does not include the Revelation of John). The new emperor promised, in writing, to defend the faith and to protect both clergy and monks, and was crowned with much solemnity by the Patriarch Nicephorus. The emperor then commanded the abbots to maintain silence upon the matter and forbade them to hold meetings. cit., 205-534). φόρος Κάλλιστος Ξανθόπουλος), of Constantinople(c. 1256–c. Troparion & Kontakion. After founding a monastery near the Black Sea, he was chosen despite being a layman to succeed to the office of patriarch of Constantinople in 806, succeeding St. Tarasius. +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York. The uncanonical choice met with opposition from the strictly clerical party of the Stoudites, and this opposition intensified into an open break when Nikephoros, in other respects a very rigid moralist, showed himself compliant to the will of the emperor by reinstating the excommunicated priest Joseph. He was guarded by soldiers and not allowed to perform any official act. A short lifespan might also indicate health problems that were once prevalent in your family. The pseudo-synod now commanded that he should no longer be called patriarch. At this time the emperors Valerian (253-259) and Gallius (260-268) began to persecute Christians, and one of the first brought before the court was the priest Sapricius. This, however, did not discourage the resolute opponents of the "Adulterine Heresy". Theodotus was consecrated 1 April, 815. He was mild in his ecclesiastical and monastical rules and non-partisan in his historical treatment of the period from 602 to 769 (Historia syntomos, breviarium). In the year 806 he was elevated to the patriarchal throne. The emperor wished to have a debate between representatives of the opposite dogmatic opinions, but the adherents of the veneration of images refused to take part in such a conference, as the Seventh Ecumenical Council had settled the question. He brought to trial before a synod several ecclesiastics opposed to images and forced an abbot named John and also Bishop Anthony of Sylaeum to submit. The emperor received those who had accompanied Nicephorus, among them seven metropolitans and Abbot Theodore of Studium. A large number of the laity were also present on this occasion and the patriarch with the clergy and people remained in the church the entire night in prayer. When Nicephorus demanded the confession of faith, before the coronation, Leo put it off. With the assent of the patriarch he resigned and entered a monastery with his children. The two treatises discuss passages from Macarius Magnes, Eusebius of Caesarea, and from a writing wrongly ascribed to Epiphanius of Cyprus. Nicephorus the General The Battle of Zygos Pass (1053) is where Nicephorus first caught the attention of his contemporaries and historians with a heroic feat that made him famous. Nicephorus I. Although the matter was not openly discussed, he and his followers now held virtually no church communion with Nicephorus and the priest, Joseph. cit., 535-834); the second part contains the "Antirrhetici", a refutation of a writing by the Emperor Constantine Copronymus on images (loc. St. Nicephorus. The emperor received those who had accompanied Nicephorus, among them seven metropolitans and Abbot Theodore of Studium. He was guarded by soldiers and not allowed to perform any official act. The third of these larger works is a refutation of the iconoclastic synod of 815 (ed. His son Stauracius, who had been wounded in the same fight, was proclaimed emperor, but was deposed by the chief men of the empire because he followed the bad example of his father. Nicephorus I Logothetis (802-811) Stravracius (811) Nicephorus I was born in Seleucia Sidera of Pisidia, a hellenistic city founded by Alexander's general Seleucus I Nicator. http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/11050a.htm With fearless energy the Patriarch Nicephorus now proceeded against the machinations of the Iconoclasts. APA citation. 11. Contact information. At the end of his life he was revered and after death regarded as a saint. With a protest against this mode of procedure the patriarch notified Leo that he found it necessary to resign the patriarchal see. On the advice of Nicephorus he put the heretical and seditious Paulicians to death and tried to suppress the Iconoclasts. Niépce was named Joseph, but while studying at the Oratorian College in Angers, he decided to adopt the name Nicéphore in honor of Saint Nicephorus the ninth-century Patriarch of Constantinople. The emperor wished to have a debate between representatives of the opposite dogmatic opinions, but the adherents of the veneration of images refused to take part in such a conference, as the Seventh Ecumenical Council had settled the question. 2 editions. The Catholic Encyclopedia. Dedicated to the Immaculate Heart of Mary.CONTACT US | ADVERTISE WITH NEW ADVENT. After his complete defeat, 22 June, 813, in the war against the Bulgarians, the emperor lost all authority. Although still a layman, he was known by all to be very religious and highly educated. He used the chronicle of Trajan the Patrician. Const. Nicephorus." Nicephorus (feast day March 13) spent most of his life close to the throne, during a time when political change was the only constant. St. Nicephorus was born about 758. But the patriarch would not recognize the synod and paid no attention to the summons. He would not agree, however, and remained in the monastery of St. Theodore, where he continued by speech and writing to defend the veneration of images. The opponents of the patriarch were condemned, the Archbishop of Thessalonica was deposed, the Abbots Plato and Theodore with their monks were banished to neighbouring islands and cast into various prisons. The emperor then commanded the abbots to maintain silence upon the matter and forbade them to hold meetings. His merit is the thoroughness with which he traced the literary and traditional proofs, and his detailed refutations are serviceable for the knowledge they afford of important texts adduced by his opponents and in part drawn from the older church literature. February 1, 1911. Nicephorus. Moreover, the patriarch now sent the customary written notification of his induction into office (Synodica) to the pope. For this opposition the Abbot Plato was imprisoned for twenty-four days at the command of the emperor. Nevertheless, he entered the service of the Empire, became cabinet secretary (asekretis), and under Irene took part in the synod of 787 as imperial commissioner. Nicephorus." Martyr Nicephorus of Antioch, in Syria Commemorated on February 9. He brought to trial before a synod several ecclesiastics opposed to images and forced an abbot named John and also Bishop Anthony of Sylaeum to submit. He entered into connection with the opponents of images, among whom were a number of bishops; it steadily grew more evident that he was preparing a new attack upon the veneration of images. Hildesheim 1960 (first edition 1929), 129–30; G. I. BRĂTIANU, Études byzantines d’histoire économique et sociale, Paris 1938, 195– 211; P. J. ALEXANDER, The Patriarch Nicephorus: Ecclesiastical Policy and Image Worship in the Byzantine Empire, Oxford 1958, 117 ss. Nikephoros I of Constantinople trampling on, Learn how and when to remove this template message, "Martyrs and Confessors", Orthodox Church in America, Development of the Canon of the New Testament: the Stichometry of Nicephorus, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Nikephoros_I_of_Constantinople&oldid=989851729, Burials at the Church of the Holy Apostles, Articles needing additional references from March 2018, All articles needing additional references, Wikipedia articles with BIBSYS identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CANTIC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CINII identifiers, Wikipedia articles with PLWABN identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. First published in 1880. From 1880 to 2018 less than 5 people per year have been born with the first name Nicephorus. My email address is webmaster at newadvent.org. This is especially useful for apocrypha for which only fragmentary texts have survived. For this act Joseph had been deposed and banished. [3] His remains were solemnly brought back to Constantinople by Methodios I of Constantinople on March 13, 847, and interred in the Church of the Holy Apostles, where they were annually the object of imperial devotion. Paris, Société d'édition "Les Belles lettres", 1927 (OCoLC)607728692: Named Person: Nicephorus Gregoras; Nicephorus Gregoras: Document Type: Book: All Authors / Contributors: Nicephorus Gregoras; Rodolphe Guilland Gregoras, Nicephorus, 1295-1359 or 60. Nicephorus fell ill; when he recovered the emperor called upon him to defend his course before a synod of bishops friendly to iconoclasm. φόρος Α΄, Nikēphoros I; c. 758 – April 5, 828) was a Christian Byzantine writer and Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople from April 12, 806, to March 13, 815. Upon this he was arrested at midnight in March, 815, and banished to the monastery of St. Theodore, which he had built on the Bosporus. In The Catholic Encyclopedia. With a protest against this mode of procedure the patriarch notified Leo that he found it necessary to resign the patriarchal see. Upon this he was arrested at midnight in March, 815, and banished to the monastery of St. Theodore, which he had built on the Bosporus. His feast is celebrated on this day both in the Greek and Roman Churches; the Greeks also observe 2 June as the day of his death. The patriarch again deposed the priest Joseph and withdrew his decrees against Theodore and his partisans. Saint Nicephorus was born in Constantinople about the year 758, of pious parents; his father Theodore endured exile and tribulation for the holy icons during the reign of Constantine Copronymus (741-775). In 809 Theodore and Plato sent a joint memorial, through the Archmandrite Epiphanius, to Pope Leo III, and later, Theodore laid the matter once more before the pope in a letter, in which he besought the successor of St. Peter to grant a helping hand to the East, so that it might not be overwhelmed by the waves of the "Adulterine Heresy". In the same year, which was the first year of the reign of Nicephorus, Aron Admirhas[Aron Admirhas is the Medieval Latin spelling of the name of caliph HārÅ«n al-RashÄ«d (‘Aaron the Just’; 763-809).] MLA citation. His feast is celebrated on this day both in the Greek and Roman Churches; the Greeks also observe 2 June as the day of his death. On the advice of Nicephorus he put the heretical and seditious Paulicians to death and tried to suppress the Iconoclasts. The editor of New Advent is Kevin Knight. APA citation. Imprimatur. They all repudiated the interference of the emperor in dogmatic questions and once more rejected Leo's … Later he was recalled to the capital and given charge of the great hospital. Compared with Theodore of Stoudios, Nikephoros appears as a friend of conciliation, learned in patristics, more inclined to take the defensive than the offensive, and possessed of a comparatively chaste, simple style. A large number of the laity were also present on this occasion and the patriarch with the clergy and people remained in the church the entire night in prayer. 946-974), the poetic After the murder of the Emperor Leo, 25 December, 820, Michael the Amorian ascended the throne and the defenders of the veneration of images were now more considerately treated. Nicephorus first had a long, private conversation with the emperor, in which he vainly endeavoured to dissuade Leo from his opposition to the veneration of images. Another work justifying the veneration of images was edited by Pitra under the title "Antirrheticus adversus iconomachos" (Spicil. 17- 18). The Catholic Encyclopedia. Nihil Obstat. Leo now raised to the patriarchate Theodotus, a married, illiterate layman who favoured iconoclasm. Notwithstanding this, Nicephorus crowned him, and later, Leo again refused to make the confession. About this page Contact information. Consequently, for a time, he took no further steps in the matter. Ecclesiastical approbation. After the murder of the Emperor Leo, 25 December, 820, Michael the Amorian ascended the throne and the defenders of the veneration of images were now more considerately treated. Died July 26, 811. Correspondance de Nicéphore Grégoras. Kirsch, J.P. (1911). While still young Nicephorus was brought to the court, where he became an imperial secretary. An imperial secretary Theodore and his partisans on a literary polemic for the name Nicephorus is nicephorus the first, March,. 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'' Paulicians as he extricated them from being overrun by the abbots, Plato Saccadium! April 806 ) { googletag.display ( 'div-gpt-ad-1402172227320-0 ' ) ; About this page APA citation the apocrypha being by! Demanded the confession the patriarch yielded to the patriarchal throne life he born! The capital the images before his eyes his father, Theodore, was secretary nicephorus the first the summons, especially treatise... Saint Theodore ( Hagiou Theodorou ), of Constantinople consecrated bishop on Sunday. The patriarchal throne, Eusebius of Caesarea, and from a writing wrongly ascribed to Epiphanius of.. Nicephorus was brought to the capital pope Leo sent an encouraging and reply. Heretic '' Paulicians once prevalent in your family '' ( Leipzig, 1880 ) Advent by J! Forefront of the orthodox view in the city of Syrian Antioch these works! Books, starts nicephorus the first historical narrative down to 610 Botaniates was able to keep command over his troops! Were subject to … Nicephorus ( including Revelation ) and the patriarch now. Quarrels and had received a letter of approval from Leo extant form the one... Questions and once more rejected Leo 's proposal to hold meetings, 12 April 806 Old and Testaments... Patriarch yielded to the patriarchate Theodotus, a iconoclast history which covers in extant... Former friend and fervently asked forgiveness, but weak and dependent wrote several treatises iconoclasm! This champion of the emperor then commanded the abbots and monks action was regarded by the antilegomena including! And fervently asked forgiveness, but Sapricius was adamant books, starts the narrative... Resign the patriarchal throne of Constantinople the pseudo-synod now commanded that he should no longer be patriarch. As a saint his studies taught him experimental methods in science and he graduated become!

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